Bosnia and Herzegovina has a mix of Mediterranean and Central European climate. It gets hot in summer but quite chilly in winter, especially at elevations where snowfall can last until April.
The most popular time to come is from May to September and for skiing between December and February. Sarajevo temperatures range from minus 2°C in winter up to 27°C in July and August. Temperatures in the south are several degrees warmer.
Due to the most recent census of Bosnia and Herzegovina, known as the 2013 census, in Bosnia and Herzegovina lives 3,791,662 persons.
The population grow rate is -0.1%.
Bosnian is a South Slavic language spoken mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina. On a formal level, Bosnian began to emerge as a distinct language after the break up of Yugoslavia in the 1990s. It became one of official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1994, along with Croatian and Serbian.
Standard Bosnian uses a Latin alphabet. Historically it was written with a version of the Cyrillic alphabet known as Bosnian Cyrillic from the late 10th century. During the Ottoman era Bosnian was written with a version of the Arabic alphabet.
Bosnian is notable for a number of Arabic, Ottoman Turkish and Persian loanwords, largely due to the language’s interaction with those cultures through Islamic ties. The Bosnian language also contains a number of Germanisms that have been in use since the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
The first Bosnian dictionary, a rhymed Bosnian–Turkish glossary authored by Muhamed Hevaji Uskufi, was composed in 1631.
Nearly 48% of Bosnian population are Muslims, predominantly, Sunni Muslims. The Serbs are generally Serbian Orthodox, a faith practiced by about 32% of the population. The Croats are primarily Roman Catholic, a faith practiced by about 14% of the population. There are small communities of Protestants, Baha’is, Romani’s, Jews and others.
Bosnia and Herzegovina is located in Southeastern Europe, in the Western Balkans. It has a 932 km border with Croatia to the North and Southwest, a 312 km border with Serbia to the East, and a 215 km border with Montenegro to the Southeast. It borders the Adriatic Sea along its 20 km coastline.
The country is mostly mountainous, encompassing the central Dinaric Alps. The northeastern parts reach into the Pannonian basin, while in the south it borders the Adriatic. The highest point of the country is peak Maglić at 2,386 m, at the Montenegrin border. Major mountains include Kozara, Grmeč, Vlašić, Čvrsnica, Prenj, Romanija, Jahorina, Bjelašnica and Treskavica.
Overall, close to 50% of Bosnia and Herzegovina is forested. Most forest areas are in Central, Eastern and Western parts of Bosnia. Northern Bosnia (Posavina) contains very fertile agricultural land along the river Sava and the corresponding area is heavily farmed.
The capital city is Sarajevo. Other major cities are Banja Luka in the northwest region known as Bosanska Krajina; Bijeljina and Tuzla in the northeast; Zenica and Doboj in the central part of Bosnia and Mostar in Herzegovina.
There are seven major rivers in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Sava, Una, Sana, Vrbas, Bosna, Drina and Neretva.
Bosnia has a transitional economy with limited market reforms. The economy relies heavily on the export of metals as well as on remittances and foreign aid.
Main industries in Bosnia and Herzegovina include: steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite, aluminum, vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, ammunition, domestic appliances, oil refining. Beside metals the most important export commodities are clothing and wood products.
Foreign banks, primarily from Austria and Italy control most of the banking sector. The convertible mark or BAM – the national currency introduced in 1998 – is pegged to the euro, and confidence in the currency and the banking sector has increased. Bosnia’s private sector is growing. Bosnia and Herzegovina became a full member of the Central European Free Trade Agreement in September 2007.